Ethics and Malpractice Policies
1. Peer-review process
- All of D&D’s content is subjected to peer-review.
- D&D's reviewers should have no conflict of interest: by consenting to review they indicate no COI with respect to the paper reviewed.
- Reviewers should point out relevant published work which is not yet cited.
- Reviewers should treat all work with respect and endeavour to review it within the deadline.
- Reviewed articles are all treated confidentially.
2. Publication ethics
- The managing and associate editors always take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred.
- In no case shall D&D or its editors encourage such misconduct, or knowingly allow such misconduct to take place.
- In the event that D&D's editors are made aware of any allegation of research misconduct they will deal with allegations appropriately.
3. Retraction and Correction
D&D has guidelines for retracting or correcting articles including but not limited to the cases listed below.
Article Retraction: grounds for retraction include but are not limited by the following:
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing or permission
- it constitutes plagiarism (appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit (including those obtained through confidential review of others’ manuscripts)
- it reports unethical research
- the peer-review process has been compromised / manipulated and the scientific integrity of the article cannot be guaranteed
- authors’ conflict(s) of interest have been disclosed post publication and the disclosure is significant enough to potentially change the conclusions (in the judgment of the editors).
We will also consider retraction to correct errors in submission or publication. In such a case:
- A retraction note titled “Retraction: [article title]” signed by the authors and/or the editor is published is included in a link made to the original article.
- The online article is preceded by a screen containing the retraction note. It is to this screen that the link resolves; the reader can then proceed to the article itself.
- The original article is retained unchanged save for a watermark on the .pdf indicating on each page that it is “retracted.”
D&D's editors will consider issuing a Corrigendum / Editorial Note (if the authors do not agree with the text) and including it in a link made to the original article if:
- a small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
- the author / contributor list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included)
- authors’ potential conflict(s) of interest have been disclosed post publication.
D&D editors will consider issuing an Expression of Concern and including it in a link made to the original article if:
- they receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors
- they believe that an investigation into alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive
- an investigation is underway but a judgment will not be available for a considerable time.